Understanding Viral Hepatitis
Every year, July 28th marks World Hepatitis Day, a time to raise awareness about viral hepatitis and its serious global impact.
Viral hepatitis causes more than 1 million deaths worldwide each year. It is estimated that approximately 257 million people are living with chronic hepatitis C across the globe, while another 71 million are living with chronic hepatitis B. An additional 290 million people are estimated to be living unknowingly with viral hepatitis.
The good news is that steps can be taken to help stop the transmission of viral hepatitis, vaccines are available to prevent certain types of viral hepatitis (hepatitis A and hepatitis B), and proper diagnosis and treatment can help prevent serious complications, such as cirrhosis, liver failure, and liver cancer.
Here at Health Edco, we have effective and engaging health education materials that are perfect to raise awareness about hepatitis, risk factors for the transmission of some forms of viral hepatitis (such as injection drug use and having sex without a condom) and vaccination for hepatitis A and hepatitis B. Learn more about the different types of viral hepatitis as well as just a few of our health education resources for hepatitis prevention and awareness.
What Is Viral Hepatitis?
Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver. Hepatitis can be caused by alcohol abuse, injection drug abuse, some medications, or exposure to certain chemicals. Viral hepatitis is inflammation of the liver caused by certain viruses. Some forms of viral hepatitis are acute infections, meaning that they are short-term infections that usually improve after several weeks. If viral hepatitis leads to a chronic, or long-term, infection, it may progress to cirrhosis, or scarring of the liver, liver failure, liver cancer, and death.
a healthy, hepatic, and cirrhotic liver.
What Are the Different Forms of Viral Hepatitis?
Researchers have identified five distinct hepatitis viruses. In the United States, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C are the most common types.
Hepatitis A is a virus that is present in an infected person’s stool. It is typically spread through contaminated food or water. With the introduction of the hepatitis A vaccine in 1995, hepatitis A has become rare in the US; it is more common in countries with poor sanitation and limited access to clean water. Hepatitis A can also be spread through sexual contact. Men who have sex with men and people who use illegal drugs are at higher risk for contracting hepatitis A.
Most hepatitis A infections last only a few months and only rarely lead to long-lasting damage. To prevent hepatitis A, it is recommended that all children receive the hepatitis A vaccine between the ages of 12 and 23 months as part of their routine vaccination schedule. Vaccination is also recommended for adults at higher risk of hepatitis A infection and people with chronic liver disease.
hepatitis A and B vaccines as a part of a child’s routine immunization schedule.
Hepatitis B is a more serious form of viral hepatitis than hepatitis A and is more likely to progress to chronic infection resulting in liver failure, liver cancer, and death. The virus is spread through contact with an infected person’s blood, semen, or other body fluids. It also can be passed from an infected mother to her unborn baby. In the US, hepatitis B most commonly spreads through having sex without a condom or by injection drug use.
To prevent hepatitis B, it is recommended that all newborns, children, and teens in the US receive the hepatitis B vaccine, which has been available since the 1980s. The hepatitis B vaccine is also recommended for adults at higher risk, including people who are traveling to other countries where hepatitis B is more common.
sexual transmission of viral hepatitis and vaccines for hepatitis A and B.
Like hepatitis B, hepatitis C spreads through contact with an infected person’s blood or other body fluids, and it can progress to cirrhosis, liver failure, and liver cancer. Common ways the hepatitis C virus is spread are through the use of shared drug injection equipment or having sex without a condom, as well as through accidental needle sticks, the use of unsterile tattoo equipment, or the use of an infected person’s razor or other personal items. The virus can also be transmitted from a mother to her unborn child.
In the US, it is estimated that as many as 3.9 million people have chronic hepatitis C, and many of them don’t know it, making screening for hepatitis C even more important. And, as a result of injection drug use as part of the opioid crisis, rates of hepatitis C infection have increased, particularly among those under the age of 30. Although there is no vaccine for hepatitis C, treatments are available that can cure most chronic hepatitis C infections and stop the progression of chronic liver disease.
liver damage can be caused by injection opioid abuse.
Other types of viral hepatitis that are uncommon in the US include hepatitis D and hepatitis E. Hepatitis D develops only in people already with hepatitis B and is spread through contact with the blood of an infected person. Vaccination against hepatitis B can also prevent hepatitis D. Spread primarily through contaminated drinking water or food, hepatitis E is more prevalent in developing countries and is especially dangerous to women who are pregnant. Although vaccines can prevent hepatitis E infection, they are not widely available.
What Are Symptoms of Hepatitis?
Not everyone who has hepatitis has symptoms, which is why so many people may be unaware of the infection. If symptoms do occur, they may include:
- Yellowing of the skin or eyes (jaundice)
- Dark urine or pale, grayish bowel movements
- Loss of appetite
- Nausea and vomiting
- Abdominal pain
similarities between a cirrhotic liver and a pickle.
Learn More About Our Related Health Education Resources
Health Edco has teaching tools that can educate any audience about multiple risk factors for viral hepatitis in our product sections devoted to general health, sex education, and drug abuse education. To see teaching tools that highlight the dangers of alcohol abuse that can lead to alcoholic hepatitis, please visit our alcohol education materials section.
©2020 Health Edco®